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Panavia Tornado
Panavia Tornado


Role: All-weather close air support/battlefield interdiction, interdiction/counter-air strike, naval strike and reconnaissance aircraft.
DESIGN FEATURES: Continuously variable-geometry shoulder wings, with leading-edge sweep angles from 25o (minimum) to 67o (maximum) on movable portions (limited to 63o when 2,250 litre drop tanks carried), 60o on fixed inboard portions; modest overall dimensions; high wing loading to minimise low-altitude gust response; swivelling wing pylons to retain stores alignment with fuselage.
LANDING GEAR: Hydraulically retractable tricycle type, with forward-retracting twin-wheel steerable nose unit. Single-wheel main units retract forward and upward into centre section of fuselage. Emergency extension system, using nitrogen gas pressure.
POWER PLANT: Two Turbo-Union RB199-34R turbofans, fitted with bucket type thrust reversers and installed in rear fuselage with downward-opening doors for servicing and engine change. Mk 101 engines of early production aircraft nominally rated at 38.7 kN (8,700 lb st) dry and 66.0 kN (14,840 lb st) with afterburning (uninstalled); RAF aircraft have engines downrated to 37.7 kN (8,475 lb st) in squadron service (37.0 kN; 8,320 lb st dry for TTTE) to extend service life. Mk 103 engines, introduced in May 1983 (engine number 761), dry rated nominally at 40.5 kN (9,100 lb st) uninstalled (38.5 kN; 8,650 lb st for RAF) and provide 71.5 kN (16,075 lb st) with afterburning. RAF ordered 100 modification kits in 1983 to upgrade Mk 101 engined aircraft to Mk 103 standard. VG air intakes locked open on RAF aircraft.
ACCOMMODATION: Crew of two on tandem Martin-Baker Mk 10A zero/zero ejection seats under Kopperschmidt one-piece, rear-hinged, upward-opening canopy.
AVIONICS: Comms: GEC-Plessey PTR 1721 (UK and Italy) or Rohde & Schwarz (Germany) UHF/VHF transceiver; Telefunken SystemTechnik UHF/ADF (UK and Germany only); SIT emergency UHF with Rohde & Schwarz switch; BAe HF/SSB aerial tuning unit; Rohde & Schwarz (UK and Germany) or Montedel (Italy) HF/SSB radio; Ultra communications control system; GEC-Marconi central suppression unit (CSU); Leigh voice recorder; Chelton UHF communications and landing system aerials and Siemens (Germany) or Cossor SSR-3100 (UK and Saudi Arabia) IFF transponder. Radar: European built Texas Instruments multimode forward-looking, terrain-following ground-mapping radar.
ARMAMENT: Fixed armament comprises two 27 mm IWKA-Mauser cannon, one in each side of lower forward fuse-lage, with 180 rds/gun. Other armament varies according to version, with emphasis on ability to carry wide range of advanced weapons. GEC-Marconi stores management system; Sandall Mace 355 and 762 mm (14 and 30 in) ejector release units standard on UK Tornados; German and Italian aircraft use multiple weapon carriage system (MWCS) ejector release units. ML Aviation CBLS 200 practice bomb carriers also standard. Battlefield interdiction version capable of carrying weapons for hard or soft targets. Weapons carried on seven fuselage and wing hardpoints: one centreline pylon fitted with single ejection release unit (ERU), two fuselage shoulder pylons each with three ERUs, and, under each wing, one inboard and one outboard pylon each with single ERU. Among weapons carried (see also Current Versions) are B61 and UK WE177B nuclear bombs; Sidewinder air-to-air, and ALARM or AGM-88 HARM anti-radiation missiles; JP233 low-altitude airfield attack munition dispenser; Paveway II and III laser-guided bomb; Maverick, Sea Eagle and Kormoran air-to-surface missiles; napalm; BL755 cluster bombs (277 kg; 611 lb Mk 1 or 264 kg; 582 lb Mk 2); MW-1 munitions dispenser; 1,000 lb bombs; smart or retarded bombs; BLU-1B 750 lb fire bombs; Mk 83 1,000 lb and Mk 82 500 lb bombs; Mk 20 Rockeye cluster bombs; Matra 250 kg ballistic and retarded bombs; Lepus flare bombs; LAU-51A and LR-25 rocket launchers. Apache standoff weapons dispenser from 1996.
Aircraft Measures:
Length: 54 ft., 10 in.
Height: 19 ft., 6.75 in.
Wingspan:
swept: 28 ft., 2 in.
unswept: 45 ft., 7 in.
Loaded Weight: 60,000 lbs.

Aircraft Performance:
Maximum Speed: Mach 2.2
Service Ceiling: 70,000 ft.
Range: 1,525
Thrust: 33,840 lbs.


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