Lockheed F-22 Raptor
Lockheed F-22 Raptor
US Air Force next-generation tactical fighter, formerly
known as Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) programme.
Low observables configuration and construction;
stealth/agility trade-off decided by design team;
target thrust/weight ratio 1.4 (achieved ratio 1.2 at
T-O weight); greatly improved reliability and
maintainability for high sortie-generation rates,
including under 20 minute combat turnround time;
enhanced survivability through `first-look, first-shot,
first-kill' capability; short T-O and landing
distances; supersonic cruise and manoeuvring
(supercruise) in region of Mach 1.5 without
afterburning; internal weapons storage and generous
internal fuel; conformal sensors.
Highly integrated avionics for single pilot
operation and rapid reaction. Radar, RWR and
comms/ident managed by single system presenting
relevant data only, and with emissions controlled
(passive to fully active) in stages, according to
tactical situation. Common integrated processor (CIP)
handles all avionics functions, including
self-protection and radio, and automatically
reconfigures to compensate for faults and failures.
F-22 has two CIPs, with space for third, linked by 400
Mbits/s fibre optic network (see Avionics).
Wing and horizontal tail leading-edge sweep 42o
(both 48o on YF-22); trailing-edge 17o forward,
increased to 42o outboard of ailerons (straight
trailing-edge on YF-22); all-moving five-edged
horizontal tail (four-edged elements on YF-22).
Vertical tail surfaces (22 per cent larger on YF-22)
canted outwards at 28o; leading- and trailing-edge
sweep 22.9o; biconvex aerofoil. F-22's wing and
stabilator areas same as YF-22, despite reprofiling.
F-22 wing taper ratio 0.169; leading-edge anhedral
3.25o; root twist 0.5o; tip twist -3.1o;
thickness/chord ratio 5.92 at root, 4.29 at tip;
custom-designed aerofoil. Horizontal tails have no
dihedral or twist.
Sidewinder AAMs stored internally in sides of
intake ducts, with AMRAAMs, Sidewinders or GBU-32 JDAM
1000 precision-guided munitions in ventral weapons bay.
Diamond-shaped cheek air intakes with highly contoured
air ducts; intakes approximately 0.46 m (1 ft 6 in)
farther forward on YF-22; single-axis thrust vectoring
included on PW119, but most specified performance
Additional production F-22 changes from YF-22 include
decreased wingroot thickness, modified camber and twist
(increasing anhedral); all 48o plan angles changed to
42o; blunter nose; wheelbase reduced by approximately
0.46 m (1 ft 6 in); wheel track reduced by same;
revised undercarriage legs and doors; constant chord
ailerons; reprofiled cockpit canopy; dorsal airbrake
Menasco retractable tricycle type, stressed for
no-flare landings of up to 3.05 m (10 ft)/s. Nosewheel
tyre 23.5 x 7.5-10; mainwheel tyres 37 x 11.5-18.
Two 155 kN (35,000 lb st) class Pratt & Whitney
F119-PW-100 advanced technology reheated engines
reportedly developed from F100 turbofan.
Two-dimensional convergent/divergent exhaust nozzles
with thrust vectoring for enhanced performance and
Pilot only, on zero/zero modified ACES II ejection seat
and wearing tactical life support system with improved
g-suits, pressure breathing and arm restraint. Pilot's
view over nose is -15o.
Include Normalair-Garrett OBOGS, AlliedSignal APU and
Smiths 270 V DC electrical distribution system.
Final integration, as well as integration of entire
suite with non-avionics systems, undertaken at F-22
Avionics Integration Laboratory, Seattle, Washington;
airborne integration supported by Boeing 757 flying
testbed; high-fidelity Full Mission Simulation (FMS)
for integrated system Pilot-Vehicle Interface (PVI)
evaluations, avionics development and mission
Comms: TRW communications/navigation/identification
system, including Mk 12 IFF.
Radar: Westinghouse/Texas Instruments AN/APG-77
electronically scanned radar (air-to-air and
Flight: TRW communications/navigation/identification
subsystem; Litton inertial reference system.
Instrumentation: Fused situational awareness
information is displayed to pilot via four
Sanders/Kaiser colour liquid crystal multifunction
displays (MFD); MFD bezel buttons provide pilot format
Mission: Hughes common integrated processor (CIP);
CIP also contains mission software that uses tailorable
mission planning data for sensor emitter management and
multisensor fusion; mission-specific information
delivered to system through Fairchild data transfer
equipment that also contains mass storage for default
data and air vehicle operational flight programme;
stores management system. General purpose processing
capacity of CIP is rated at more than 700 million
instructions per second (Mips) with growth to 2,000
Mips; signal processing capacity greater than 20
billion operations per second (Bops) with expansion
capability to 50 Bops; CIP contains more than 300
Mbytes of memory with growth potential to 650 Mbytes.
Intra-flight data link automatically shares tactical
information between two or more F-22s. Airframe
contains provisions for IRST and side-mounted
Self-defence: Sanders/General Electric AN/ALR-94
electronic warfare (RF warning and countermeasures)
Internal long-barrel M61A2 20 mm cannon with hinged
muzzle cover and 480-round magazine capacity
(production F-22). Three internal bays (see Design
Features) for AIM-9 Sidewinder (one in each side bay)
and/or four AIM-120A or six AIM-120C AMRAAM AAMs and/or
GBU-32 JDAM 1000 PGMs on hydraulic weapon racks in main
weapons bay. Four underwing stores stations at 317 mm
(125 in) and 442 mm (174 in) from centreline of
fuselage capable of carrying 2,268 kg (5,000 lb) each.
Length: 18.92 m (62 ft 1 in)
Height: 5.05 m (16 ft 7 in)
Wingspan: 13.56 m (44 ft 6 in)
Max Weight: 27,216 kg (60,000 lb)
Maximum Speed: supercruise Mach 1.58
with afterburning: Mach 1.7 at 9,150 m (30,000 ft)
Service Ceiling: 15,240 m (50,000 ft)
Thrust:70,000 lbs. (plus vectoring on pitch axis)