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Lockheed F-22 Raptor
Lockheed F-22 Raptor


Role: US Air Force next-generation tactical fighter, formerly known as Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) programme.
DESIGN FEATURES: Low observables configuration and construction; stealth/agility trade-off decided by design team; target thrust/weight ratio 1.4 (achieved ratio 1.2 at T-O weight); greatly improved reliability and maintainability for high sortie-generation rates, including under 20 minute combat turnround time; enhanced survivability through `first-look, first-shot, first-kill' capability; short T-O and landing distances; supersonic cruise and manoeuvring (supercruise) in region of Mach 1.5 without afterburning; internal weapons storage and generous internal fuel; conformal sensors. Highly integrated avionics for single pilot operation and rapid reaction. Radar, RWR and comms/ident managed by single system presenting relevant data only, and with emissions controlled (passive to fully active) in stages, according to tactical situation. Common integrated processor (CIP) handles all avionics functions, including self-protection and radio, and automatically reconfigures to compensate for faults and failures. F-22 has two CIPs, with space for third, linked by 400 Mbits/s fibre optic network (see Avionics). Wing and horizontal tail leading-edge sweep 42o (both 48o on YF-22); trailing-edge 17o forward, increased to 42o outboard of ailerons (straight trailing-edge on YF-22); all-moving five-edged horizontal tail (four-edged elements on YF-22). Vertical tail surfaces (22 per cent larger on YF-22) canted outwards at 28o; leading- and trailing-edge sweep 22.9o; biconvex aerofoil. F-22's wing and stabilator areas same as YF-22, despite reprofiling. F-22 wing taper ratio 0.169; leading-edge anhedral 3.25o; root twist 0.5o; tip twist -3.1o; thickness/chord ratio 5.92 at root, 4.29 at tip; custom-designed aerofoil. Horizontal tails have no dihedral or twist. Sidewinder AAMs stored internally in sides of intake ducts, with AMRAAMs, Sidewinders or GBU-32 JDAM 1000 precision-guided munitions in ventral weapons bay. Diamond-shaped cheek air intakes with highly contoured air ducts; intakes approximately 0.46 m (1 ft 6 in) farther forward on YF-22; single-axis thrust vectoring included on PW119, but most specified performance achievable without. Additional production F-22 changes from YF-22 include decreased wingroot thickness, modified camber and twist (increasing anhedral); all 48o plan angles changed to 42o; blunter nose; wheelbase reduced by approximately 0.46 m (1 ft 6 in); wheel track reduced by same; revised undercarriage legs and doors; constant chord ailerons; reprofiled cockpit canopy; dorsal airbrake deleted.
LANDING GEAR: Menasco retractable tricycle type, stressed for no-flare landings of up to 3.05 m (10 ft)/s. Nosewheel tyre 23.5 x 7.5-10; mainwheel tyres 37 x 11.5-18.
POWER PLANT: Two 155 kN (35,000 lb st) class Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 advanced technology reheated engines reportedly developed from F100 turbofan. Two-dimensional convergent/divergent exhaust nozzles with thrust vectoring for enhanced performance and manoeuvrability.
ACCOMMODATION: Pilot only, on zero/zero modified ACES II ejection seat and wearing tactical life support system with improved g-suits, pressure breathing and arm restraint. Pilot's view over nose is -15o.
SYSTEMS: Include Normalair-Garrett OBOGS, AlliedSignal APU and Smiths 270 V DC electrical distribution system.
AVIONICS: Final integration, as well as integration of entire suite with non-avionics systems, undertaken at F-22 Avionics Integration Laboratory, Seattle, Washington; airborne integration supported by Boeing 757 flying testbed; high-fidelity Full Mission Simulation (FMS) for integrated system Pilot-Vehicle Interface (PVI) evaluations, avionics development and mission effectiveness assessment. Comms: TRW communications/navigation/identification system, including Mk 12 IFF. Radar: Westinghouse/Texas Instruments AN/APG-77 electronically scanned radar (air-to-air and navigation). Flight: TRW communications/navigation/identification subsystem; Litton inertial reference system. Instrumentation: Fused situational awareness information is displayed to pilot via four Sanders/Kaiser colour liquid crystal multifunction displays (MFD); MFD bezel buttons provide pilot format control. Mission: Hughes common integrated processor (CIP); CIP also contains mission software that uses tailorable mission planning data for sensor emitter management and multisensor fusion; mission-specific information delivered to system through Fairchild data transfer equipment that also contains mass storage for default data and air vehicle operational flight programme; stores management system. General purpose processing capacity of CIP is rated at more than 700 million instructions per second (Mips) with growth to 2,000 Mips; signal processing capacity greater than 20 billion operations per second (Bops) with expansion capability to 50 Bops; CIP contains more than 300 Mbytes of memory with growth potential to 650 Mbytes. Intra-flight data link automatically shares tactical information between two or more F-22s. Airframe contains provisions for IRST and side-mounted phased-array radar. Self-defence: Sanders/General Electric AN/ALR-94 electronic warfare (RF warning and countermeasures) subsystem.
ARMAMENT: Internal long-barrel M61A2 20 mm cannon with hinged muzzle cover and 480-round magazine capacity (production F-22). Three internal bays (see Design Features) for AIM-9 Sidewinder (one in each side bay) and/or four AIM-120A or six AIM-120C AMRAAM AAMs and/or GBU-32 JDAM 1000 PGMs on hydraulic weapon racks in main weapons bay. Four underwing stores stations at 317 mm (125 in) and 442 mm (174 in) from centreline of fuselage capable of carrying 2,268 kg (5,000 lb) each.
Aircraft Measures:
Length: 18.92 m (62 ft 1 in)
Height: 5.05 m (16 ft 7 in)
Wingspan: 13.56 m (44 ft 6 in)
Max Weight: 27,216 kg (60,000 lb)

Aircraft Performance:
Maximum Speed: supercruise Mach 1.58
with afterburning: Mach 1.7 at 9,150 m (30,000 ft)
Service Ceiling: 15,240 m (50,000 ft)
Thrust:70,000 lbs. (plus vectoring on pitch axis)


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